Façadism, Building Renovation and the Boundaries of Authenticity

  • Evangelia Kyriazi University of the Peloponnese
Keywords: facadism, historic preservation, buildings, architecture, urban environment, conservation

Abstract

The paper presents the history and trends of façadism, with examples from around the world, including a case where the State intervened for the suspension of façadism plans after alarmed academics referred to the Supreme Administrative Court. The different practices and scopes of façadism are presented, along with the views of its supporters and adversaries. Issues of authenticity arising from façadism interventions are discussed.  Answers on whether building renovation through façadism consists of cultural preservation practice and preservation of the authenticity of a place, are sought in internationally accepted cultural heritage policy documents. These may provide solutions that could assist countries and institutions to make the right decisions regarding the conservation of architectural heritage, and confront extreme façadism practices through planning programs, legislative measures and education.

Author Biography

Evangelia Kyriazi, University of the Peloponnese

PhD researcher

References

2nd International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments. 1964a. The Venice Charter-International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites. https://www.icomos.org/charters/venice_e.pdf. Adopted by ICOMOS in 1965. Accessed 3 July 2019.

— 1964b. “The Venice Charter-International Charter for the Conservation
and Restoration of Monuments and Sites.” Adopted by ICOMOS
in 1965.

6th International Congress of Architects. 1904. “Recommendations of the
Madrid Conference.” The Architectural Journal: Being the Journal of the
Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) XI
(Third Series): 343–346.

Bargery, Robert. 2005. The Ethics of Façadism - Pragmatism versus Idealism.
http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/facadism/facadism.htm. Cathedral Communications Limited, Building Conservation. Accessed 04 October 2017.

Congrès internationaux d’architecture moderne (CIAM). 1933. “The Athens
Charter (Trans J.Tyrwhitt, 1943).” The Library of the Graduate School
of Design, Harvard University, 1946, Paris, France.

Council of Europe. 1954. European Cultural Convention. https:
//www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/
treaty/018. Accessed 3 July 2019.

— 1975. European Charter of the Architectural Heritage.
https://www.icomos.org/en/charters-and-texts/
179-articles-en-francais/ressources/charters-and-standards/
170-european-charter-of-the-architectural-heritage. Accessed
3 July 2019.

— 1998. Recommendation No.R(98)4 of the Committee of Ministers
to Member States of Measures to Promote the Integrated Conservation
of Historic Complexes Composed of Immoveable and Moveable Property.
https://rm.coe.int/09000016804eda6b. Accessed 3 July 2019.

Durrell, Lawrence. 1969. Spirit of Place. London: Faber.

Engineering Timelines. 2017. Lloyd’s of London building. http:
//www.engineering-timelines.com/scripts/engineeringItem.asp?
id=1291. Accessed 04 October 2017.

First International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic
Monuments. 1931. The Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic
Monuments.
https://www.icomos.org/en/charters-and-texts/
179-articles-en-francais/ressources/charters-and-standards/
167-the-athens-charter-for-the-restoration-of-historic-monuments.
Accessed 3 July 2019.

Gombrich, Ernst Hans. 1991. Topics of Our Time. London: Phaidon Press.

Gough, Caroline. 2012. When two worlds collide,
Toronto style. https://blog.tatasteelconstruction.com/
when-two-worlds-collide-toronto-style/. Tata Steel. Accessed 2
July 2019.

Historic England. 1987. Bracken House. https://www.historicengland.
org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1262582. Accessed 04 October
2017.

— 2011. Lloyd’s Building. https://www.historicengland.org.uk/
listing/the-list/list-entry/1405493. Accessed 4 October 2017.

Iamandi, C. 1997. “The Charters of Athens of 1931 and 1933. Coincidence,
controversy and convergence.” Conservation and Management of Archaeological
Sites 2:17–28.

ICOMOS. 1967. “The Norms of Quito.” https://www.icomos.org/
en/charters-and-texts/179-articles-en-francais/ressources/
charters-and-standards/168-the-norms-of-quito. Accessed 03
July 2019.

— 1972. “Resolutions of the Symposium on the
Introduction of Contemporary Architecture into Ancient
Groups of Buildings. 3rd ICOMOS General Assembly.”
https://www.icomos.org/en/charters-and-texts/
180-articles-en-francais/chartes-et-normes/383-resolutions-of-the-symposium-on-the-introduction-of-contemporary-architecture-Accessed 03 July 2019.

— 1994. “The Nara Document on Authenticity.” https://www.
icomos.org/charters/nara-e.pdf. Accessed 03 July 2019.

— 2008. “The ICOMOS Charter for the Interpretation and Presentation
of Cultural Heritage Sites.” https://www.icomos.org/charters/
interpretation_e.pdf. Accessed 03 July 2019.

Jakle, J. A. 1987. The Visual Elements of Landscape. University of Massachusetts
Press: Amherst, MA.

Jivén, Gunila, and Peter J. Larkham. 2003. “Sense of Place, Authenticity
and Character: A Commentary.” Journal of Urban Design 8 (1): 67–81.

Jokilehto, J. 1986. “A History of Architectural Conservation. The Contribution
of English, French, German and Italian Thought towards an International
Approach to the Conservation of Cultural Property.” Ph.D. diss.,
The University of York, England, Institute of Advanced Architectural
Studies.

Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB). 2009 (1877). The
Manifesto of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. http://
www.spab.org.uk/what-is-spab/the-manifesto/. Accessed 5 October
2017.

Studio Libeskind. 2019. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada. https:
//libeskind.com/work/royal-ontario-museum/. Studio Libeskind.
Accessed 2 July 2019.

UNESCO. 1962. Recommendation concerning the Safeguarding of Beauty
and Character of Landscapes and Sites. http://portal.unesco.org/
en/ev.php-URL_ID=13067&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html.
Accessed 03 July 2019.

— 1964. Recommendation on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing
the Illicit Export, Import and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property.
http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13083&URL_DO=
DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. Accessed 03 July 2019.
Published
2019-07-11
Section
Special issue: Restoration