What They See is What We Get in Film: Reality Tells the Fiction
Robert Bresson's cinematography allows him to show the affordances that things and situations have for characters in a film. By intimating these affordances, Bresson authentically presents the affordances as well as the characters. The fact that Bresson views and conceives of his `actors' as models, rather than as malleable actors, illustrates, again, an effort to authentically film real persons in real situations. Recognising people authentically is done in real-life through a reciprocal gaze, which is not automatically available to the camera's lens, an apparatus that does not look back at one. Perhaps, Nuri Bilge Ceylan's approach fits this effort better: not a writing with sounds and images, but an intuitive use of homeliness.
Aristotle. n.d. (1965). On the Art of Poetry. Classical Literary Criticism. Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books.
Azoulay, Ariella. 2008. The Civil Contract of Photography. New York: Zone Books.
Barthes, Roland. 2000 (1980). Camera Lucida. Translated by Richard Howard. London: Vintage.
Bresson, Robert. 2016. Notes on the Cinematograph. New York: The New York Review of Books, Inc.
Cavell, Stanley. 1979. The World Viewed: Reflections on the Ontology of Film. Enlarged edition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Currie, Gregory. 1998a. “The Film Theory that Never Was: A Nervous Manifesto.” In Film Theory and Philosophy, edited by Richard Allen and Murray Smith, 42–59. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- 1998b. Image and Mind. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fridlund, Alan J. 1997. “The new ethology of human facial expressions.” In The Psychology of Facial Expression, edited by James A. Russell and José-Miguel Fernandez-Dols, 103–32. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Frijda, Nico, and Anna Tcherkassof. 1997. “Facial Expressions as Modes of Action Readiness.” In The Psychology of Facial Expression, edited by James A. Russell and José-Miguel Fernandez-Dols, 78–102. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gerwen, Rob van. 2002. “An ontological fallacy in Analytical Aesthetics (In Dutch: De ontologische drogreden in de analytische esthetica).” Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 94:109–123.
- 2013. “Waiting for Imagery. The Tragic Retoric of Iconic pho- tographs (In Dutch: Wachten op beeld. De tragische retorica van iconische foto’s).” Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 105 (1): 40–54.
- 2018. Shall we stay in touch. How we remove the mind from our world view. (In Dutch, Zullen we contact houden. Hoe we de geest uit ons wereldbeeld verwijderen.). Utrecht: Klement.
Gibson, J.J. 1986. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. London, Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Nagel, Thomas. 1986. The View From Nowhere. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sartre, Jean-Paul. 2003 (1956). Being and Nothingness. An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology. Translated by Hazel E. Barnes. New York and London: Routledge.
Scruton, Roger. 1983. “Photography and Representation.” In The Aesthetic Understanding: Essays in the Philosophy of Art and Culture, 102–126. London, New York: Methuen.
Walton, Kendall L. 1984. “Transparent Pictures: On the Nature of Photographic Realism.” Critical Inquiry 11:246–77.
- 1990. Mimesis as Make-Believe. On the Foundations of the Representational Arts. Cambridge, Massachussetts: Harvard University Press.
- 1998. “On Pictures and Photographs: Objections Answered.” In Film Theory and Philosophy, edited by Richard Allen and Murray Smith, 60–75. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Williams, Bernard. 1985. Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy. Fontana Press.
Wollheim, Richard. 1984. The Thread of Life. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.
- 1988. “The Spectator in the Picture.” In Painting as an Art, 101– 186. Princeton / London: Princeton University Press / Thames and Hudson.
- 1993. “Pictorial Style: Two Views.” In The Mind and its Depths, 171–184. Harvard University Press.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).